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Travel Guide and Information about London

Pasty

A pasty or pastie is a baked pastry, a traditional variety of which is particularly associated with Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is made by placing an uncooked filling, typically meat and vegetables, on one half of a flat shortcrust pastry circle, folding the pastry in half to wrap the filling in a semicircle and crimping the curved edge to form a seal before baking.

The traditional Cornish pasty, which since 2011 has Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) status in Europe, is filled with beef, sliced or diced potato, swede (also known as yellow turnip or rutabaga – referred to in Cornwall as turnip) and onion, seasoned with salt and pepper, and is baked. Today, the pasty is the food most associated with Cornwall. It is regarded as the national dish and accounts for 6% of the Cornish food economy. Pasties with many different fillings are made and some shops specialise in selling all sorts of pasties.

The origins of the pasty are unclear, though there are many references to them throughout historical documents and fiction. The pasty is now popular worldwide due to the spread of Cornish miners, and variations can be found in Australia, the United States, Argentina, Mexico, Ulster and elsewhere.

Despite the modern pasty's strong association with Cornwall, its exact origins are unclear. The English word "pasty" derives from Medieval French for a pie, filled with venison, salmon or other meat, vegetables or cheese, baked without a dish. Pasties have been mentioned in cookbooks throughout the ages. For example, the earliest version of Le Viandier (Old French) has been dated to around 1300 and contains several pasty recipes. In 1393, Le Menagier de Paris contains recipes for pasté with venison, veal, beef, or mutton.

Other early references to pasties include a 13th-century charter that was granted by Henry III (1207–1272) to the town of Great Yarmouth. The town is bound to send to the sheriffs of Norwich every year one hundred herrings, baked in twenty four pasties, which the sheriffs are to deliver to the lord of the manor of East Carlton who is then to convey them to the King. Around the same time, 13th-century chronicler Matthew Paris wrote of the monks of St Albans Abbey "according to their custom, lived upon pasties of flesh-meat". A total of 5,500 venison pasties were served at the installation feast of George Neville, archbishop of York and chancellor of England in 1465. They were even eaten by royalty, as a letter from a baker to Henry VIII's third wife, Jane Seymour (1508–1537) confirms: "...hope this pasty reaches you in better condition than the last one..." In his diaries written in the mid-17th century, Samuel Pepys makes several references to his consumption of pasties, for instance "dined at Sir W. Pen’s ... on a damned venison pasty, that stunk like a devil.", but after this period the use of the word outside Cornwall declined.

In contrast to its earlier place amongst the wealthy, during the 17th and 18th centuries, the pasty became popular with working people in Cornwall, where tin miners and others adopted it due to its unique shape, forming a complete meal that could be carried easily and eaten without cutlery. In a mine, the pasty's dense, folded pastry could stay warm for several hours, and if it did get cold, it could easily be warmed on a shovel over a candle.

Side-crimped pasties gave rise to the suggestion that the miner might have eaten the pasty holding the thick edge of pastry, which was later discarded, thereby ensuring that his dirty fingers (possibly including traces of arsenic) did not touch food or his mouth. However, many old photographs show that pasties were wrapped in bags made of paper or muslin and were eaten from end-to-end; according to the earliest Cornish recipe book, published in 1929, this is "the true Cornish way" to eat a pasty. Another theory suggests that pasties were marked at one end with an initial and then eaten from the other end so that if not finished in one go, they could easily be reclaimed by their owners.

In 2006, a researcher in Devon discovered a list of ingredients for a pasty tucked inside an audit book and dated 1510, calculating the cost of making a venison pasty. This replaced the previous oldest recipe, dated 1746, held by the Cornwall Records Office in Truro, Cornwall. The dish at the time was cooked with venison, in this case from the Mount Edgcumbe estate, as the pasty was then considered a luxury meal. Alongside the ledger, which included the price of the pasty in Plymouth, Devon, in 1509, the discovery sparked a controversy between the neighbouring counties of Devon and Cornwall as to the origin of the dish. However, the term pasty appears in much earlier written records from other parts of the country, as mentioned above.

The pasty is regarded as the national dish of Cornwall, and the term "Cornish pasty" has been in use since at least the early 1860s:

By the late 19th century, national cookery schools began to teach their pupils to create their own version of a "Cornish pasty" that was smaller, and was to be eaten as an "economical savoury nibble for polite middle-class Victorians".

On 20 July 2011, after a nine-year campaign by the Cornish Pasty Association – the trade organisation of about 50 pasty makers based in Cornwall – the name "Cornish pasty" was awarded Protected Geographical Indication status by the European Commission. According to the PGI status, a Cornish pasty should be shaped like a 'D' and crimped on one side, not on the top. Its ingredients should include beef, swede (called turnip in Cornwall), potato and onion, with a light seasoning of salt and pepper, keeping a chunky texture. The pastry should be golden and retain its shape when cooked and cooled. The PGI status also means that Cornish pasties must be prepared in Cornwall. They do not have to be baked in Cornwall, nor do the ingredients have to come from the county, though the Cornish Pasty Association (CPA) noted that there are strong links between pasty production and local suppliers of the ingredients. Packaging for pasties that conform to the requirements includes an authentication stamp, the use of which is policed by the CPA.

Producers outside Cornwall objected to the PGI award, with one saying "[EU bureaucrats could] go to hell", and another that it was "protectionism for some big pasty companies to churn out a pastiche of the real iconic product". Major UK supermarkets Asda and Morrisons both stated they would be affected by the change, as did nationwide bakery chain Greggs, though Greggs was one of seven companies allowed to continue to use the name "Cornish pasty" during a three-year transitional period.

Members of the CPA made about 87 million pasties in 2008, amounting to sales of £60 million (about 6% of the food economy of Cornwall). In 2011, over 1,800 permanent staff were employed by members of the CPA and some 13,000 other jobs benefited from the trade. Surveys by the South West tourism board have shown that one of the top three reasons people visit Cornwall is the food and that the Cornish pasty is the food most associated with Cornwall.

Michael Ball, a Cornish-born businessman who is chief executive of WMC Retail Partners, Oxfordshire, is planning to establish a Cornish pasty museum at Cornish Market World near St Austell. He hopes to collect pasty-making artifacts and memorabilia for the museum.

The recipe for a Cornish pasty, as defined by its protected status, includes diced or minced beef, onion, potato and swede in rough chunks along with some "light peppery" seasoning. The cut of beef used is generally skirt steak. Swede is sometimes called turnip in Cornwall, but the recipe requires use of actual swede, not turnip. Pasty ingredients are usually seasoned with salt and pepper, depending on individual taste. The use of carrot in a traditional Cornish pasty is frowned upon, though it does appear regularly in recipes.

The type of pastry used is not defined, as long as it is golden in colour and will not crack during the cooking or cooling, although modern pasties almost always use a shortcrust pastry. There is a humorous belief that the pastry on a good pasty should be strong enough to withstand a drop down a mine shaft, and indeed the barley flour that was usually used does make hard dense pastry.

Migrating Cornish miners and their families helped to spread pasties into the rest of the world during the 19th century. As tin mining in Cornwall began to decline, miners took their expertise and traditions to new mining regions around the world. As a result, pasties can be found in many regions, including:

  • Many parts of Australia, including the Yorke Peninsula, which has been the site of an annual pasty festival (claimed to be the world's largest) since 1973. A clarification of the Protected Geographical Status ruling has confirmed that pasties made in Australia are still allowed to be called "Cornish Pasties".
  • Pasties can be found in California and Nevada in many historical Gold Rush towns, such as Grass Valley and Nevada City.
  • The Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In some areas, pasties are a significant tourist attraction, including an annual Pasty Fest in Calumet, Michigan in late June. Pasties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan have a particularly unusual history. Many ethnic groups adopted the pasty for use in the Copper Country copper mines; the Finnish immigrants to the region mistook it for the traditional piiraat and kuuko pastries. The pasty has become strongly associated with all cultures in this area, and in the similar Iron Range in northern Minnesota.
  • Mineral Point, Wisconsin, was the site of the first mineral rush in the USA during the 1830s. After lead was discovered in Mineral Point, many of the early miners migrated from Cornwall to this south-western Wisconsin area. Those Cornish miners brought their skills working in the deep underground tin mines of Cornwall. They also brought their recipe and appetite for the pasty.
  • A similar local history about the arrival of the pasty in the area with an influx of Welsh and Cornish miners to the area's copper mines, and its preservation as a local delicacy, is found in Butte, Montana, "The Richest Hill On Earth".
  • The Anthracite regions of northeastern Pennsylvania, including the cities of Wilkes-Barre, Scranton, and Hazleton, had an influx of miners to the area in the 1800s and brought the pasty with them. To this day, pasties are still a local favourite. In 1981, a Pennsylvania entrepreneur started marketing pasties under the brand name Mr. Pastie.
  • The Mexican state of Hidalgo, and the twin silver mining cities of Pachuca and Real del Monte (Mineral del Monte), have notable Cornish influences from the Cornish miners who settled there, with pasties being considered typical local cuisine. In Mexican Spanish, they are referred to as pastes. The town of Real del Monte in Mexico is the site of a museum of pasties. The annual International Pasty Festival is held in Real del Monte for three days each October.
  • They are also popular in South Africa, New Zealand and Ulster.

Westminster

Westminster is a city in its own right, the twin to the ancient City of London further east and historically they jointly formed the focus of what is today regarded as London. The Palace of Westminster came to be the principal royal residence after the Norman Conquest of England in 1066, and later housed the developing Parliament and law courts of England. The neighbouring Westminster Abbey became the traditional venue of the coronation of England regents. Westminster has therefore been the seat of royal, and later parliamentary, government and power for 900 years. As a result, many of its attractions are of an historical and cultural variety. Even so Westminster very much retains a bustling, modern feel as the centre of British government and is often used as shorthand for Parliament and the political community of the United Kingdom generally. For the traveller and for the scope of this article, it is important to understand though that the district of Westminster is bounded to the north by Trafalgar Square and Mayfair, to the east by Covent Garden and to the west by Knightsbridge and Chelsea. St. James's is the area of Westminster that encompasses Buckingham Palace, the Palace of Westminster and the eponymously named park. This is a very affluent area of the city and has a great deal to offer visitors. Belgravia to the west of Buckingham Palace is probably the grandest residential area in the whole of the United Kingdom. Victoria and Pimlico in the south-west are the least grand parts of the district but still have much to offer including the Tate Britain, some wonderful Regency architecture and a number of good value accommodation options.

Cycling

Due to the expense of other forms of transport and the compactness of central London, cycling is a tempting option. Free cycle maps can usually be obtained from your local Tube station or bike shop.

Most major roads in London will have a bus lane which is restricted to buses, taxis and bicycles.

Many improvements have been made for cyclists in the city over the last few years, Noticeably, there are many new signposted cycle routes and new cycle lanes as well as a review of junctions considered dangerous for cycling. Despite recent improvements, however, London remains a relatively hostile environment for cyclists. The kind of contiguous cycle lane network found in many other European cities does not exist. The safest option is to stick to minor residential roads where traffic can be surprisingly calm outside rush hours.

Critical Mass London is a cycling advocacy group which meets for regular rides through central London at 18:00 on the last Friday of each month. Rides start from the southern end of Waterloo Bridge. The London Cycling Campaign is an advocacy group for London cyclists. With active local groups in most of the city's boroughs, it is recognised by local and regional government as the leading voice for cycling in the capital.

Normally a cyclist should keep to the left of the lane when cycling on a road with traffic, to allow faster-moving traffic to overtake. However, it is legal for a cycle to dominate a lane by maintaining a central road position like any other vehicle. This will make you unpopular with any traffic behind you but it is recommended in London on approach to right-hand turns at junctions. Making a right-hand turn from the normal left-position means crossing the lane of traffic, which may often ignore you and any turn signals you might have been using, leading to potential accidents.

Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele, found in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V. The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic script and Demotic script, respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient Greek. As the decree has only minor differences between the three versions, the Rosetta Stone proved to be the key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs.

The stone, carved in black granodiorite during the Hellenistic period, is believed to have originally been displayed within a temple, possibly at nearby Sais. It was probably moved during the early Christian or medieval period, and was eventually used as building material in the construction of Fort Julien near the town of Rashid (Rosetta) in the Nile Delta. It was rediscovered there in July 1799 by a French soldier named Pierre-François Bouchard during the Napoleonic campaign in Egypt. It was the first Ancient Egyptian bilingual text recovered in modern times, and it aroused widespread public interest with its potential to decipher this previously untranslated hieroglyphic language. Lithographic copies and plaster casts began circulating among European museums and scholars. Meanwhile, British troops defeated the French in Egypt in 1801, and the original stone came into British possession under the Capitulation of Alexandria and was transported to London. It has been on public display at the British Museum almost continuously since 1802, and is the most-visited object there.

Study of the decree was already under way when the first full translation of the Greek text appeared in 1803. It was 20 years, however, before the transliteration of the Egyptian scripts was announced by Jean-François Champollion in Paris in 1822; it took longer still before scholars were able to read Ancient Egyptian inscriptions and literature confidently. Major advances in the decoding were recognition that the stone offered three versions of the same text (1799); that the demotic text used phonetic characters to spell foreign names (1802); that the hieroglyphic text did so as well, and had pervasive similarities to the demotic (Thomas Young, 1814); and that, in addition to being used for foreign names, phonetic characters were also used to spell native Egyptian words (Champollion, 1822–1824).

Ever since its rediscovery, the stone has been the focus of nationalist rivalries, including its transfer from French to British possession during the Napoleonic Wars, a long-running dispute over the relative value of Young and Champollion's contributions to the decipherment and, since 2003, demands for the stone's return to Egypt.

Two other fragmentary copies of the same decree were discovered later, and several similar Egyptian bilingual or trilingual inscriptions are now known, including two slightly earlier Ptolemaic decrees (the Decree of Canopus in 238 BC, and the Memphis decree of Ptolemy IV, c. 218 BC). The Rosetta Stone is, therefore, no longer unique, but it was the essential key to modern understanding of Ancient Egyptian literature and civilisation. The term Rosetta Stone is now used in other contexts as the name for the essential clue to a new field of knowledge.

The Rosetta Stone is listed as "a stone of black granodiorite, bearing three inscriptions ... found at Rosetta" in a contemporary catalogue of the artefacts discovered by the French expedition and surrendered to British troops in 1801.Bierbrier pp. 111–113 At some period after its arrival in London, the inscriptions on the stone were coloured in white chalk to make them more legible, and the remaining surface was covered with a layer of carnauba wax designed to protect the Rosetta Stone from visitors' fingers.Parkinson et al. (1999) p. 23 This gave a dark colour to the stone that led to its mistaken identification as black basalt.Synopsis (1847) pp. 113–114 These additions were removed when the stone was cleaned in 1999, revealing the original dark grey tint of the rock, the sparkle of its crystalline structure, and a pink vein running across the top left corner.Miller et al. (2000) pp. 128–132 Comparisons with the Klemm collection of Egyptian rock samples showed a close resemblance to rock from a small granodiorite quarry at Gebel Tingar on the west bank of the Nile, west of Elephantine in the region of Aswan; the pink vein is typical of granodiorite from this region.Middleton and Klemm (2003) pp. 207–208

The Rosetta Stone is 1123mm high at its highest point, 757mm wide, and 284mm thick. It weighs approximately 760kg.The Rosetta Stone It bears three inscriptions: the top register in Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, the second in the Egyptian Demotic script, and the third in Ancient Greek.Ray (2007) p. 3 The front surface is polished and the inscriptions lightly incised on it; the sides of the stone are smoothed, but the back is only roughly worked, presumably because this would have not been visible when it was erected.Parkinson et al. (1999) p. 28

The stele was erected after the coronation of King Ptolemy V and was inscribed with a decree that established the divine cult of the new ruler.Parkinson et al. p. 25 The decree was issued by a congress of priests who gathered at Memphis. The date is given as "4 Xandicus" in the Macedonian calendar and "18 Meshir" in the Egyptian calendar, which corresponds to March 27, 196 BC. The year is stated as the ninth year of Ptolemy V's reign (equated with 197/196 BC), which is confirmed by four priests named who officiated in that same year: Aëtus son of Aëtus was priest of the divine cults of Alexander the Great and the five Ptolemies down to Ptolemy V himself; his three colleagues, named in turn in the inscription, led the worship of Berenice Euergetis (wife of Ptolemy III), Arsinoe Philadelphos (wife and sister of Ptolemy II), and Arsinoe Philopator, mother of Ptolemy V.Clarysse and Van der Veken (1983) pp. 20–21 However, a second date is also given in the Greek and hieroglyphic texts, corresponding to 27 November 197 BC, the official anniversary of Ptolemy's coronation.Parkinson et al. (1999) p. 29 The inscription in demotic conflicts with this, listing consecutive days in March for the decree and the anniversary. It is uncertain why such discrepancies exist, but it is clear that the decree was issued in 196 BC and that it was designed to re-establish the rule of the Ptolemaic kings over Egypt.Shaw & Nicholson (1995) p. 247

The decree was issued during a turbulent period in Egyptian history. Ptolemy V Epiphanes reigned from 204 to 181 BC, the son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and his wife and sister Arsinoe. He had become ruler at the age of five after the sudden death of both of his parents, who were murdered in a conspiracy that involved Ptolemy IV's mistress Agathoclea, according to contemporary sources. The conspirators effectively ruled Egypt as Ptolemy V's guardiansTyldesley (2006) p. 194Clayton (2006) p. 211 until a revolt broke out two years later under general Tlepolemus, when Agathoclea and her family were lynched by a mob in Alexandria. Tlepolemus, in turn, was replaced as guardian in 201 BC by Aristomenes of Alyzia, who was chief minister at the time of the Memphis decree.Bevan (1927) pp. 252–262

Political forces beyond the borders of Egypt exacerbated the internal problems of the Ptolemaic kingdom. Antiochus III the Great and Philip V of Macedon had made a pact to divide Egypt's overseas possessions. Philip had seized several islands and cities in Caria and Thrace, while the Battle of Panium (198 BC) had resulted in the transfer of Coele-Syria, including Judaea, from the Ptolemies to the Seleucids. Meanwhile, in the south of Egypt, there was a long-standing revolt that had begun during the reign of Ptolemy IV, led by Horwennefer and by his successor Ankhwennefer.Assmann (2003) p. 376 Both the war and the internal revolt were still ongoing when the young Ptolemy V was officially crowned at Memphis at the age of 12 (seven years after the start of his reign), and the Memphis decree issued.

The stele is a late example of a class of donation stelae, which depicts the reigning monarch granting a tax exemption to the resident priesthood.Kitchen (1970) p. 59 Pharaohs had erected these stelae over the previous 2,000 years, the earliest examples dating from the Egyptian Old Kingdom. In earlier periods, all such decrees were issued by the king himself, but the Memphis decree was issued by the priests, as the maintainers of traditional Egyptian culture.Parkinson (2005) p. 13 The decree records that Ptolemy V gave a gift of silver and grain to the temples.Bevan (1927) pp. 264–265 It also records that there was particularly high flooding of the Nile in the eighth year of his reign, and he had the excess waters dammed for the benefit of the farmers. In return for these concessions, the priesthood pledged that the king's birthday and coronation days would be celebrated annually, and that all the priests of Egypt would serve him alongside the other gods. The decree concludes with the instruction that a copy was to be placed in every temple, inscribed in the "language of the gods" (hieroglyphs), the "language of documents" (demotic), and the "language of the Greeks" as used by the Ptolemaic government.Ray (2007) p. 136Parkinson et al. (1999) p. 30

Securing the favour of the priesthood was essential for the Ptolemaic kings to retain effective rule over the populace. The High Priests of Memphis—where the king was crowned—were particularly important, as they were the highest religious authorities of the time and had influence throughout the kingdom.Shaw (2000) p. 407 Given that the decree was issued at Memphis, the ancient capital of Egypt, rather than Alexandria, the centre of government of the ruling Ptolemies, it is evident that the young king was anxious to gain their active support.Walker and Higgs (editors, 2001) p. 19 Thus, although the government of Egypt had been Greek-speaking ever since the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Memphis decree, like the two preceding decrees in the series, included texts in Egyptian to show its connection to the general populace by way of the literate Egyptian priesthood.Bagnall and Derow (2004) (no. 137 in online version)

There exists no one definitive English translation of the decree because of the minor differences between the three original texts, and because modern understanding of the ancient languages continues to develop. An up-to-date translation by R. S. Simpson appears on the British Museum website, based on the demotic text.Simpson (n. d.); revised version of Simpson (1996) pp. 258–271 It can be compared with Edwyn R. Bevan's full translation in The House of Ptolemy (1927),Bevan (1927) pp. 263–268 based on the Greek text with footnote comments on variations between this and the two Egyptian texts.

The stele almost certainly did not originate in the town of Rashid (Rosetta) where it was found, but more likely came from a temple site farther inland, possibly the royal town of Sais.Parkinson (2005) p. 14 The temple from which it originally came was probably closed around AD 392 when Eastern Roman emperor Theodosius I ordered the closing of all non-Christian temples of worship.Parkinson (2005) p. 17 The original stele broke at some point, its largest piece becoming what we now know as the Rosetta Stone.Parkinson (2005) p. 20 Ancient Egyptian temples were later used as quarries for new construction, and the Rosetta Stone probably was re-used in this manner. Later it was incorporated in the foundations of a fortress constructed by the Mameluke Sultan Qaitbay (c. 1416/18–1496) to defend the Bolbitine branch of the Nile at Rashid. There it lay for at least another three centuries until its rediscovery.

Two other inscriptions of the Memphis decrees have been found since the discovery of the Rosetta Stone: the Nubayrah Stele, and an inscription found at the Temple of Philae (on the Philae obelisk). Unlike the Rosetta Stone, their hieroglyphic inscriptions were relatively intact. The inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone had been deciphered long before the discovery of the other copies of the decree, but subsequent Egyptologists, including Wallis Budge, used these other inscriptions to further refine the actual hieroglyphs that must have been used in the lost portions of the hieroglyphic register on the Rosetta Stone.Budge (1913) p. 1

Napoleon's 1798 campaign in Egypt came at the beginning of a burst of Egyptomania in Europe, and especially France. A corps of 167 technical experts (savants), known as the Commission des Sciences et des Arts, accompanied the French expeditionary army to Egypt. On July 15, 1799, French soldiers under the command of Colonel d'Hautpoul were strengthening the defences of Fort Julien, a couple of miles north-east of the Egyptian port city of Rosetta (modern-day Rashid). Lieutenant Pierre-François Bouchard spotted a slab with inscriptions on one side that the soldiers had uncovered. He and d'Hautpoul saw at once that it might be important and informed General Jacques-François Menou, who happened to be at Rosetta. The find was announced to Napoleon's newly founded scientific association in Cairo, the Institut d'Égypte, in a report by Commission member Michel Ange Lancret noting that it contained three inscriptions, the first in hieroglyphs and the third in Greek, and rightly suggesting that the three inscriptions were versions of the same text. Lancret's report, dated July 19, 1799, was read to a meeting of the Institute soon after July 25. Bouchard, meanwhile, transported the stone to Cairo for examination by scholars. Napoleon himself inspected what had already begun to be called la Pierre de Rosette, the Rosetta Stone, shortly before his return to France in August 1799.

The discovery was reported in September in Courrier de l'Égypte, the official newspaper of the French expedition. The anonymous reporter expressed a hope that the stone might one day be the key to deciphering hieroglyphs. In 1800, three of the Commission's technical experts devised ways to make copies of the texts on the stone. One of these experts was Jean-Joseph Marcel, a printer and gifted linguist, who is credited as the first to recognise that the middle text was written in the Egyptian Demotic script, rarely used for stone inscriptions and seldom seen by scholars at that time, rather than Syriac as had originally been thought. It was artist and inventor Nicolas-Jacques Conté who found a way to use the stone itself as a printing block to reproduce the inscription.Adkins (2000) p. 38 A slightly different method was adopted by Antoine Galland. The prints that resulted were taken to Paris by General Charles Dugua. Scholars in Europe were now able to see the inscriptions and attempt to read them.Gillispie (1987) pp. 1–38

After Napoleon's departure, French troops held off British and Ottoman attacks for another 18 months. In March 1801, the British landed at Aboukir Bay. Menou was now in command of the French expedition. His troops, including the Commission, marched north towards the Mediterranean coast to meet the enemy, transporting the stone along with many other antiquities. He was defeated in battle, and the remnant of his army retreated to Alexandria where they were surrounded and besieged, the stone now inside the city. Menou surrendered on August 30.Wilson (1803) vol. 2 pp. 274–284

After the surrender, a dispute arose over the fate of the French archaeological and scientific discoveries in Egypt, including the artefacts, biological specimens, notes, plans, and drawings collected by the members of the commission. Menou refused to hand them over, claiming that they belonged to the Institute. British General John Hely-Hutchinson refused to relieve the city until Menou gave in. Scholars Edward Daniel Clarke and William Richard Hamilton, newly arrived from England, agreed to examine the collections in Alexandria and claimed to have found many artefacts that the French had not revealed. In a letter home, Clarke said that "we found much more in their possession than was represented or imagined".Burleigh p. 212

Hutchinson claimed that all materials were property of the British Crown, but French scholar Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire told Clarke and Hamilton that the French would rather burn all their discoveries than turn them over, referring ominously to the destruction of the Library of Alexandria. Clarke and Hamilton pleaded the French scholars' case to Hutchinson, who finally agreed that items such as natural history specimens would be the scholars' private property.Parkinson et al. (1999) p. 21Burleigh (2007) p. 214 Menou quickly claimed the stone, too, as his private property.Budge (1913) p. 2 Hutchinson was equally aware of the stone's unique value and rejected Menou's claim. Eventually an agreement was reached, and the transfer of the objects was incorporated into the Capitulation of Alexandria signed by representatives of the British, French, and Ottoman forces.

It is not clear exactly how the stone was transferred into British hands, as contemporary accounts differ. Colonel Tomkyns Hilgrove Turner was to escort it to England, but he claimed later that he had personally seized it from Menou and carried it away on a gun-carriage. In a much more detailed account, Edward Daniel Clarke stated that a French "officer and member of the Institute" had taken him, his student John Cripps, and Hamilton secretly into the back streets behind Menou's residence and revealed the stone hidden under protective carpets among Menou's baggage. According to Clarke, their informant feared that the stone might be stolen if French soldiers saw it. Hutchinson was informed at once and the stone was taken away—possibly by Turner and his gun-carriage.Parkinson et al. (1999) pp. 21–22

Turner brought the stone to England aboard the captured French frigate HMS Egyptienne, landing in Portsmouth in February 1802.Andrews (1985) p. 12 His orders were to present it and the other antiquities to King George III. The King, represented by War Secretary Lord Hobart, directed that it should be placed in the British Museum. According to Turner's narrative, he and Hobart agreed that the stone should be presented to scholars at the Society of Antiquaries of London, of which Turner was a member, before its final deposit in the museum. It was first seen and discussed there at a meeting on March 11, 1802.

In 1802 the Society created four plaster casts of the inscriptions, which were given to the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Edinburgh and to Trinity College Dublin. Soon afterwards, prints of the inscriptions were made and circulated to European scholars. Before the end of 1802, the stone was transferred to the British Museum, where it is located today. New inscriptions painted in white on the left and right edges of the slab stated that it was "Captured in Egypt by the British Army in 1801" and "Presented by King George III".

The stone has been exhibited almost continuously in the British Museum since June 1802. During the middle of the 19th century, it was given the inventory number "EA 24", "EA" standing for "Egyptian Antiquities". It was part of a collection of ancient Egyptian monuments captured from the French expedition, including a sarcophagus of Nectanebo II (EA 10), the statue of a high priest of Amun (EA 81), and a large granite fist (EA 9).Parkinson (2005) pp. 30–31 The objects were soon discovered to be too heavy for the floors of Montagu House (the original building of The British Museum), and they were transferred to a new extension that was built onto the mansion. The Rosetta Stone was transferred to the sculpture gallery in 1834 shortly after Montagu House was demolished and replaced by the building that now houses the British Museum.Parkinson (2005) p. 31 According to the museum's records, the Rosetta Stone is its most-visited single object,Parkinson (2005) p. 7 and a simple image of it has been the museum's best selling postcard for several decades.

The Rosetta Stone was originally displayed at a slight angle from the horizontal, and rested within a metal cradle that was made for it, which involved shaving off very small portions of its sides to ensure that the cradle fitted securely. It originally had no protective covering, and it was found necessary by 1847 to place it in a protective frame, despite the presence of attendants to ensure that it was not touched by visitors.Parkinson (2005) p. 32 Since 2004, the conserved stone has been on display in a specially built case in the centre of the Egyptian Sculpture Gallery. A replica of the Rosetta Stone is now available in the King's Library of the British Museum, without a case and free to touch, as it would have appeared to early 19th-century visitors.Parkinson (2005) p. 50

The museum was concerned about heavy bombing in London towards the end of the First World War in 1917, and the Rosetta Stone was moved to safety, along with other portable objects of value. The stone spent the next two years 15m below ground level in a station of the Postal Tube Railway at Mount Pleasant near Holborn. Other than during wartime, the Rosetta Stone has left the British Museum only once: for one month in October 1972, to be displayed alongside Champollion's Lettre at the Louvre in Paris on the 150th anniversary of the letter's publication.Parkinson (2005) p. 47 Even when the Rosetta Stone was undergoing conservation measures in 1999, the work was done in the gallery so that it could remain visible to the public.Parkinson (2005) pp. 50–51

Prior to the discovery of the Rosetta Stone and its eventual decipherment, the ancient Egyptian language and script had not been understood since shortly before the fall of the Roman Empire. The usage of the hieroglyphic script had become increasingly specialised even in the later Pharaonic period; by the 4th century CE, few Egyptians were capable of reading them. Monumental use of hieroglyphs ceased after the closing of all non-Christian temples in 391 by Roman Emperor Theodosius I; the last known inscription is dated to 24 August 394, found at Philae and known as the Graffito of Esmet-Akhom.Ray p. 11

Hieroglyphs retained their pictorial appearance, and classical authors emphasised this aspect, in sharp contrast to the Greek and Roman alphabets. In the 5th century, the priest Horapollo wrote Hieroglyphica, an explanation of almost 200 glyphs. His work was believed to be authoritative, yet it was misleading in many ways, and this and other works were a lasting impediment to the understanding of Egyptian writing.Parkinson et al. (1999) pp. 15–16 Later attempts at decipherment were made by Arab historians in medieval Egypt during the 9th and 10th centuries. Dhul-Nun al-Misri and Ibn Wahshiyya were the first historians to study hieroglyphs, by comparing them to the contemporary Coptic language used by Coptic priests in their time.El Daly (2005) pp. 65–75Ray (2007) pp. 15–18 The study of hieroglyphs continued with fruitless attempts at decipherment by European scholars, notably Johannes Goropius Becanus in the 16th century, Athanasius Kircher in the 17th, and Georg Zoëga in the 18th.Ray (2007) pp. 20–24 The discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1799 provided critical missing information, gradually revealed by a succession of scholars, that eventually allowed Jean-François Champollion to solve the puzzle that Kircher had called the riddle of the Sphinx.

Egypt first requested the return of the Rosetta Stone in July 2003, on the British Museum's 250th anniversary. Zahi Hawass, the chief of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, asked that the stele be repatriated to Egypt, commenting that it was the "icon of our Egyptian identity".Edwardes and Milner He repeated the proposal two years later in Paris, listing the stone as one of several key items belonging to Egypt's cultural heritage, a list which also included: the iconic bust of Nefertiti in the Egyptian Museum of Berlin; a statue of the Great Pyramid architect Hemiunu in the Roemer-und-Pelizaeus-Museum in Hildesheim, Germany; the Dendara Temple Zodiac in the Louvre in Paris; and the bust of Ankhhaf from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

During 2005, the British Museum presented Egypt with a full-sized replica of the stele. This was initially displayed in the renovated Rashid National Museum, close to the site where the stone was found."Rose of the Nile" (2005) In November 2005, Hawass suggested a three-month loan of the Rosetta Stone, while reiterating the eventual goal of a permanent return.Huttinger (2005) In December 2009, he proposed to drop his claim for the permanent return of the Rosetta Stone if the British Museum lent the stone to Egypt for three months for the opening of the Grand Egyptian Museum at Giza in 2013."Antiquities wish list" (2005) These requests were refused."Rosetta Stone row" (2009)

As John Ray has observed, "the day may come when the stone has spent longer in the British Museum than it ever did in Rosetta."Ray (2007) p. 4 There is strong opposition among national museums to the repatriation of objects of international cultural significance such as the Rosetta Stone. In response to repeated Greek requests for return of the Elgin Marbles from the Parthenon and similar requests to other museums around the world, in 2002 over 30 of the world's leading museums — including the British Museum, the Louvre, the Pergamon Museum in Berlin and the Metropolitan Museum in New York City — issued a joint statement declaring that "objects acquired in earlier times must be viewed in the light of different sensitivities and values reflective of that earlier era" and that "museums serve not just the citizens of one nation but the people of every nation".Bailey (2003)

The term Rosetta stone has been used idiomatically to represent a crucial key in the process of decryption of encoded information, especially when a small but representative sample is recognised as the clue to understanding a larger whole. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first figurative use of the term appeared in the 1902 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica relating to an entry on the chemical analysis of glucose. Another use of the phrase is found in H. G. Wells' 1933 novel The Shape of Things to Come, where the protagonist finds a manuscript written in shorthand that provides a key to understanding additional scattered material that is sketched out in both longhand and on typewriter.

Since then, the term has been widely used in other contexts. For example, Nobel laureate Theodor W. Hänsch in a 1979 Scientific American article on spectroscopy wrote that "the spectrum of the hydrogen atoms has proved to be the Rosetta stone of modern physics: once this pattern of lines had been deciphered much else could also be understood". Fully understanding the key set of genes to the human leucocyte antigen has been described as "the Rosetta Stone of immunology". The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been called the "Rosetta Stone of flowering time". A Gamma ray burst found in conjunction with a supernova has been called a Rosetta Stone for understanding the origin of GRBs. The technique of Doppler echocardiography has been called a Rosetta Stone for clinicians trying to understand the complex process by which the left ventricle of the human heart can be filled during various forms of diastolic dysfunction.

The name has also become used in various forms of translation software. Rosetta Stone is a brand of language-learning software published by Rosetta Stone Ltd., headquartered in Arlington County, Virginia, US. "Rosetta" is the name of a "lightweight dynamic translator" that enables applications compiled for PowerPC processors to run on Apple systems using an x86 processor. "Rosetta" is an online language translation tool to help localisation of software, developed and maintained by Canonical as part of the Launchpad project. Similarly, Rosetta@home is a distributed computing project for predicting protein structures from amino acid sequences (or translating sequence into structure). The Rosetta Project brings language specialists and native speakers together to develop a meaningful survey and near-permanent archive of 1,500 languages, intended to last from AD 2000 to 12,000. The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft was launched to study the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko in the hope that determining its composition will reveal the origin of the Solar System.

South Kensington-Chelsea

This district is defined as the southern part of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea from the Thames in the south to Kensington High Street in the north, also taking in Hyde Park in the east and the area around Kensington Olympia in the west. It includes the area south of the Royal Parks commonly known as High Street Kensington and South Kensington west to Earl's Court and Olympia and south to West Brompton, Sloane Square and Chelsea . Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens combine to form the largest green space in metropolitan London and provide a real oasis in the heart of this vast city. South Kensington hosts four of London's largest and finest museums, as well as its oldest and arguably most famous concert hall, and is home to the venerable Imperial College. High Street Kensington leads to a long line of shops and department stores, offering a less hectic version of Oxford Street as well very upmarket stores in Knightsbridge . Sloane Street connects Knightsbridge to Chelsea via Sloane Square and is lined with luxury brand boutiques. Chelsea is an extensive riverside area of London that extends broadly from Sloane Square in the east to the World's End pub in the west and down to the River Thames. The King's Road marks the main thoroughfare of Chelsea. The district contains the second largest number of American immigrants in the United Kingdom, many of whom work in the financial sector in The City, while others are connected to institutions such as the American International University, which has a campus just off High Street Kensington. Many local shops, from convenience stores to supermarkets, stock American products in their ethnic food sections. South Kensington is sometimes called the "21st arrondissement" due to the number of French expatriates living there; enough to technically make London the sixth largest French city. The community results in many French cafés, delicatessens and other businesses in the area. Knightsbridge is known for both its Russian and Arab populations, with the accompanying restaurants and institutions they bring. The whole of the district contains some of the most expensive residential property in the world but is a little more downmarket towards its western edges.

Notting Hill Carnival

The Notting Hill Carnival is an annual event that has taken place in London since 1966 on the streets of Notting Hill, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, each August over two days . It is led by members of the British West Indian community, and attracts around one million people annually, making it one of the world's largest street festivals, and a significant event in Black British culture. In 2006, the UK public voted it onto the list of icons of England. Despite its name, it is not part of the global Carnival season preceding Lent.

Professor David Dabydeen has stated:

Carnival is not alien to British culture. Bartholomew Fair and Southwark Fair in the 18th century were moments of great festivity and release. There was juggling, pickpocketing, whoring, drinking, masquerade — people dressed up as the Archbishop of Canterbury and indulged in vulgar acts. It allowed people a space to free-up but it was banned for moral reasons and for the antiauthoritarian behaviour that went on like stoning of constables. Carnival allowed people to dramatise their grievances against the authorities on the street... Notting Hill Carnival single-handedly revived this tradition and is a great contribution to British cultural life."Professor David Dabydeen "Notting Hill Carnival", Yesu Persaud Centre for Caribbean Studies, University of Warwick. Retrieved 30 August 2015.

Bartholomew's Fair was suppressed in 1855 by the City authorities for encouraging debauchery and public disorder.

The roots of the Notting Hill Carnival that took shape in the mid-1960s come from two separate but connected strands. A "Caribbean Carnival" was held on 30 January 1959Caribbean Carnival 1959 brochure. in St Pancras Town Hall as a response to the problematic state of race relations at the time; the UK's first widespread racial attacks, the Notting Hill race riots in which 108 people were charged, had occurred the previous year. The 1959 event, held indoors and televised by the BBC, was organised by the Trinidadian Claudia Jones (often described as "the mother of the Notting Hill Carnival")"Claudia Jones", AfroCelebrities, 1 August 2013. in her capacity as editor of Britain's first black newspaper The West Indian Gazette, and directed by Edric Connor; showcasing elements of a Caribbean carnival in a cabaret style, it "featured among other things the Mighty Terror singing the calypso 'Carnival at St Pancras', a Caribbean Carnival Queen beauty contest, the Trinidad All Stars and Hi–fi steel bands dance troupe and a Grand Finale Jump-Up by West Indians who attended the event."

The other important strand was the "hippie" London Free School-inspired festival in Notting Hill that became the first organised outside event in August 1966. The prime mover was Rhaune Laslett,Stephen Spark, "Carnival Roots", Soca News, 1 October 2009.Margaret Busby, "The Notting Hill carnival has an unsung hero – Rhaune Laslett", The Guardian, 24 August 2014.Davina Hamilton, "'Yes, This Is Notting Hill Carnival's 50th Year'" ("Debora Alleyne De Gazon, creative director of the London Notting Hill Carnival Enterprises Trust, clears up the confusion about the year the event began"), The Voice, 28 August 2016. who was not aware of the indoor events when she first raised the idea. This festival was a more diverse Notting Hill event to promote cultural unity. A street party for neighbourhood children turned into a carnival procession when Russell Henderson's steel band (who had played at the earlier Claudia Jones events) went on a walkabout.Gary Younge, "The politics of partying", The Guardian, 17 August 2002. By 1970, "the Notting Hill Carnival consisted of 2 music bands, the Russell Henderson Combo and Selwyn Baptiste’s Notting Hill Adventure Playground Steelband and 500 dancing spectators."Michael La Rose,, July 2004. Submitted to Joseph Charles Media, publishers of Soca News, for August 2004 Notting Hill Carnival edition of Carnival Groove.

Among the early bands to participate were Ebony Steelband and Metronomes Steelband."How Carnival was developed in Britain?" Carnival in Education. "Notting Hill Carnival became a major festival in 1975 when it was organised by a young teacher, Leslie Palmer." Palmer, who was director from 1973 to 1975, is credited with "getting sponsorship, recruiting more steel bands, reggae groups and sound systems, introducing generators and extending the route."Peter Timothy, "Visionaries, Pioneers, Apostles and Healers: The Contribution of Migrants from Trinidad and Tobago to the Development of Black Britain, 1948 to 1986". European Conference on Arts & Humanities, 2013, Proceedings, p. 5. Quoting Tom Vague, 50 Years of Carnival 1959-2009, London: HISTORY talk, 2009, p. 22.Bill Tuckey, "In the beginning...", The Independent, 23 August 2002.Portobello Film Festival. He encouraged traditional masquerade, and for the first time in 1973 costume bands and steel bands from the various islands took part in the street parade,Natasha Ofosu, "Notting Hill Carnival pioneers to be honoured", Soca News, 17 August 2012. alongside the introduction of stationary sound systems, as distinct from those on moving floats,Nabeel Zuberi and Jon Stratton (eds), Black Popular Music in Britain Since 1945, Ashgate Publishing, 2014, p. 141.Jamie Clifton, "Things You Never Knew About Carnival, London's Best Street Party", Vice, 21 August 2014. which as Alex Pascall has explained: "created the bridge between the two cultures of carnival, reggae and calypso."Carnival (2014), p. 290. The carnival was also popularised by live radio broadcasts by Pascall on his daily Black Londoners programme for BBC Radio London.

Notting Hill Carnival is very reminiscent of Jamaican dancehall sessions due to the sounding of the event creating a "space". According to one 2014 academic article, Notting Hill Carnival’s use of sound systems invokes cultural and personal associations for listeners, bringing about another "space", or a home for populations of the Black Atlantic Diaspora. Physically, the dominance of the sound envelops the crowd, creating a setting for the Carnival even though there are no physical boundaries. The fact that the sound systems are in the streets precipitates an environment where participants hear the sounds before they can actually see the systems themselves. The experience that all of these factors brings about for participants of the Carnival is representative of the Carnival-goers becoming a part of the larger diaspora, and acquiring a feeling of a distant African homeland, without having seen or having first-hand knowledge of the African continent.Henriques, Julian, and Beatrice Ferrara, "The Sounding of Notting Hill Carnival: Music as Space, Place and Territory."

Emslie Horniman's Pleasance (in the nearby Kensal Green area), with Kensal Green and Westbourne Park tube stations its closest tube station, has been the carnival's traditional starting point.

As the carnival had no permanent staff and head office, the Mangrove restaurant in Notting Hill, run by another Trinidadian, Frank Crichlow, came to function as an informal communication hub and office address for the carnival's organisers. By 1976, the event had become definitely Caribbean in flavour, with around 150,000 people attending. However, in that year and several subsequent years, the carnival was marred by riots, in which predominantly Caribbean youths fought with police a target due to the continuous harassment the population felt they were under. During this period, there was considerable press coverage of the disorder, which some felt took an unfairly negative and one-sided view of the carnival. For a while it looked as if the event would be banned. Prince Charles was one of the few establishment figures who supported the event."Five things you didn’t know about Notting Hill Carnival", Time Out (Now. Here. This), 24 August 2012.

Concerns about the size of the event resulted in London's then mayor, Ken Livingstone, setting up a Carnival Review Group to look into "formulating guidelines to safeguard the future of the Carnival".Mayor of London - Notting Hill Carnival Review Group. An interim report by the review resulted in a change to the route in 2002. When the full report was published in 2004, it recommended that Hyde Park be used as a "savannah",Notting Hill Carnival: A Strategic Review, Greater London Authority, June 2004. though the proposal of such a move attracted concerns, including that the Hyde Park event might overshadow the original street carnival.Colourful: Weekday EditionClaire Hu, "'Don't move carnival route'", Evening Standard, 10 January 2002.Alice -Azania Jarvis, "The Timeline: The Notting Hill Carnival", The Independent, 26 August 2010.

In 2003, the Notting Hill Carnival was run by a limited company, the Notting Hill Carnival Trust Ltd. A report by the London Development Agency on the 2002 Carnival estimated that the event contributes around £93 million to the London and UK economy.Michael Ward, "Executive Summary", The economic impact of the Notting Hill carnival, London Development Agency Research, May 2003, p. 9. However, the 2016 residents' survey commissioned by local Conservative Member of Pariament Victoria Borwick found that while six per cent of businesses reported an upturn in trade, many others boarded up their shopfronts and lost business due to closure.

In 2005, entrants from the Notting Hill Carnival participated in the Bridgwater, Somerset, carnival — Europe's largest lighted carnival and part of the West Country Carnival circuit.

For the 2011 Notting Hill Carnival an iPhone app was released,"Notting Hill Carnival 2011 iPhone app", Source, 2011."Notting Hill Carnival Gets Free iPhone App", The Londonist, 26 August 2011. and in 2012 both iPhone and Android apps."How To Enjoy Notting Hill Carnival 2012", Londonist, 23 August 2012.

For 2014, a Notting Hill Carnival illustrated guide was created by official city guide to London visitlondon.com. The infographic includes Carnival tips,"Top 10 Tips for Notting Hill Carnival", VisitLondon.com. transport information and a route map. The book Carnival: A Photographic and Testimonial History of the Notting Hill Carnival,"Fantastic new photobook celebrates the history of Notting Hill Carnival", It's Nice That, 22 August 2014."A Black History Month Special Oct 2014: Ishmahil Blagrove discusses his book ‘Carnival’", Flip the Script Book, 10 October 2014.Jamie Clifton, "Things You Never Knew About Carnival", Vice, 21 August 2014. by Ishmahil Blagrove and Margaret Busby, was also published in August 2014 by Rice N Peas."Carnival: A Photographic and Testimonial History of the Notting Hill" at Ricenpeas.com.Stephen Spark, "Notting Hill Carnival book launch – creating harmony out of adversity", Soca News, 26 November 2014.

In 2015 there was controversy when the Nottinghill Carnival Trust charged journalists £100, to cover the event and demanded copies of all work produced relating to the event within three weeks of the end of the Carnival.Dominic Ponsford, "Journalists charged £100 to cover Notting Hill Carnival and told to share work with organisers", Press Gazette, 19 August 2015. The National Union of Journalists organised a boycott of the event."Notting Hill Carnival 2015: Journalists to stage boycott over £100 accreditation fee", The Independent, 25 August 2015. In 2016 the charge remained; however, in June 2017, the Carnival's new event management team introduced a revised media policy, with no request for any accreditation fees."New Media Policy and Official Media Centre at Carnival", Press release, Notting Hill Carnival Guide, 16 June 2017.Stephen Spark, "Notting Hill Carnival promises a media makeover", Soca News, 4 July 2017.

In 2016, when the Golden Jubilee of Notting Hill Carnival was celebrated,Stephen Spark, "Notting Hill Carnival launches into the past", Soca News, 27 July 2016."Notting Hill Carnival celebrates golden jubilee", Arts Council England, 24 August 2016."In pictures: Fifty years of the Notting Hill Carnival", BBC News, 28 August 2016. 42 hours of live video coverage was broadcast by music live-streaming platform Boiler Room from the Rampage, Deviation, Aba Shanti-I, Channel One, Nasty Love, Saxon Sound, King Tubbys, Gladdy Wax and Disya Jeneration soundsystems.-->

Since the carnival did not have local authority permission, initial police involvement was aimed at preventing it taking place at all, which resulted in regular confrontation and riots.

One notable time when this occurred was in 1976; police had been expecting hostility due to what they deemed as trouble the year before. Consequently, after discovering pickpockets in the crowd, police took a heavy-handed approach against the large congregation of blacks and it became "no-man's land". The 1600 strong police force violently broke up the carnival, resulting in the arrest of 60 people. In the aftermath of the event, the carnival was portrayed in a very pointed way, with those aiding the riots lumped together as the "trouble-makers" responsible.

After the 1976 Notting Hill Carnival the Police Federation pressed for the introduction of riot shields to protect police from objects thrown at them, although the shields also had the potential for aggressive use, as in 1977.

A change of policy came after a confrontation in 1987, which saw the Carnival being allowed to take place with police adopting a more conciliatory approach. During the 2000 Carnival, two men were murdered and future policing, while conciliatory, resulted in police deployment in large numbers — upwards of 11,000.

The Mayor of London's Carnival Review Group's report led to the parades taking a circular rather than linear route, but a recommendation to relocate the event in Hyde Park has been resisted. Some crimes associated with the carnival have taken place on its periphery: in 2007, two teenagers were wounded in separate shooting incidents just outside the carnival area on the Monday evening; however, police said there had been a decline in the number of carnival-linked arrests in comparison with the previous year.

The 2008 Carnival was marred by rioting at the very end of the weekend, involving about 40 youths battling with police, and more than 300 people were arrested. The carnival has come under criticism for its cost to the London taxpayer, with the cost for policing the event more than £6,000,000; however, it is argued that this should be put into context since the carnival is estimated to bring approximately £93,000,000 into the local economy.

Despite talk of the 2011 Carnival being cancelled in the wake of the early August riots in the UK that year, it was seen as being relatively peaceful. Five people were arrested for a stabbing at Ladbroke Grove. The victim was one of 86 people who were taken to hospital. In total 245 people were detained by police over the two days of the carnival.

In recent years, the event has been much freer from serious trouble and is generally viewed very positively by the authorities as a dynamic celebration of London's multicultural diversity, though dominated by the Caribbean culture. However,there has been controversy over the public safety aspects of holding such a well attended event in narrow streets in a small area of London. A survey in 2016 commissioned by local Conservative Member of Pariament Victoria Borwick found that "Nine out of ten residents living along the route of the Notting Hill Carnival flee their homes to escape the 'frightening and intimidating' event."

In 2016 there were over 450 arrests and five people were hurt in four knife attacks; however, the commander in charge of policing carnival, David Musker, said that the number of arrests had been inflated by the new Psychoactive Substances Act 2016. Based on relative attendance figures, it has been said that crime rates for the Notting Hill carnival and for Glastonbury or other music festivals are comparable, and Ishmahil Blagrove, author of the book Carnival: A Photographic and Testimonial History of the Notting Hill Carnival, states: "Notting Hill Carnival, compared to Trinidad or Brazil, is one of the safest in the world – not just the second largest – it's one of the safest." A report in 2004 by the GLA Policing Policy Director, Lee Jasper, criticized authorities for not addressing safety issues involved in over a million people attending a small inner-city residential area, quoting the Met Police spokesman Dave Musker, who in November 2016 said: "Each year … we come exceptionally close to a major catastrophic failure of public safety where members of the public will suffer serious injury."

In the three weeks running up to the 2017 event, the police made 656 arrests, a pre-emptive crackdown that, as reported in The Guardian, "drew criticism from some, including the grime artist Stormzy, who replied to a series of tweets from the Metropolitan police: 'How many drugs did you lot seize in the run-up to Glastonbury or we only doing tweets like this for black events?'" The number of arrests made during the two days of the 2017 Carnival was 313, compared with 454 in the previous year. On both days, a minute's silence in tribute to the victims of the Grenfell Tower fire was observed at 3pm by Carnival-goers, many of whom wore "green for Grenfell".

Since 1987 there have been five deaths caused by violence at Notting Hill Carnival:

  • 30 August 1987 – Michael Augustine Galvin, 23, stallholder - stabbed.
  • 26 August 1991 – Nicholas John Hanscomb, 38, bled to death after being stabbed in the thigh.
  • 28 August 2000 – Greg Fitzgerald Watson, 21, stabbed to death after an argument over food.
  • 28 August 2000 – Abdul Munam Bhatti, 28; the police treated his attack as racially motivated by a gang of "mainly black males", as described by a witness. Nine men were sentenced for violent disorder in 2002.
  • 30 August 2004 – Lee Christopher Surbaran, 27, was shot by a gang using a machine pistol for "showing disrespect"; in 2005, three men were jailed for life for his murder.

Sutton Hoo

Sutton Hoo, near Woodbridge, Suffolk, is the site of two 6th- and early 7th-century cemeteries. One cemetery contained an undisturbed ship burial, including a wealth of Anglo-Saxon artefacts of outstanding art-historical and archaeological significance, most of which are now in the British Museum in London. The site is in the care of the National Trust.

Sutton Hoo is of primary importance to early medieval historians because it sheds light on a period of English history that is on the margin between myth, legend, and historical documentation. Use of the site culminated at a time when Rædwald, the ruler of the East Angles, held senior power among the English people and played a dynamic if ambiguous part in the establishment of Christian rulership in England; it is generally thought most likely that he is the person buried in the ship. The site has been vital in understanding the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of East Anglia and the whole early Anglo-Saxon period.

The ship-burial, probably dating from the early 7th century and excavated in 1939, is one of the most magnificent archaeological finds in England for its size and completeness, far-reaching connections, the quality and beauty of its contents, and the profound interest of the burial ritual itself. The initial excavation was privately sponsored by the landowner. When the significance of the find became apparent, national experts took over. Subsequent archaeological campaigns, particularly in the late 1960s and late 1980s, have explored the wider site and many other individual burials. The most significant artefacts from the ship-burial, displayed in the British Museum, are those found in the burial chamber, including a suite of metalwork dress fittings in gold and gems, a ceremonial helmet, shield and sword, a lyre, and many pieces of silver plate from Byzantium. The ship-burial has, from the time of its discovery, prompted comparisons with the world described in the heroic Old English poem Beowulf, which is set in southern Sweden. It is in that region, especially at Vendel, that close archaeological parallels to the ship burial are found, both in its general form and in details of the military equipment contained in the burial.

Although it is the ship-burial that commands the greatest attention from tourists, two separate cemeteries also have rich historical meaning because of their position in relation to the Deben estuary and the North Sea, and their relation to other sites in the immediate neighborhood. Of the two grave fields found at Sutton Hoo, one had long been known to exist because it consists of a group of approximately 20 earthen burial mounds that rise slightly above the horizon of the hill-spur when viewed from the opposite bank. The other, called here the "new" burial ground, is situated on a second hill-spur close to the present Exhibition Hall, about 500 m upstream of the first. It was discovered and partially explored in 2000 during preliminary work for the construction of the hall. This also had burials under mounds, but was not known because these mounds had long since been flattened by agricultural activity. The site has a visitor centre, with many original and replica artefacts and a reconstruction of the ship burial chamber, and the burial field can be toured in the summer months and at weekends and school holidays year-round.

Sutton Hoo is the name of an area spread along the bank of the River Deben opposite the harbour of the small Suffolk town of Woodbridge, about 7 miles from the North Sea, overlooking the tidal estuary a little below the lowest convenient fording place. It formed a path of entry into East Anglia during the period that followed the end of Roman imperial rule in the 5th century.

South of Woodbridge, there are 6th-century burial grounds at Rushmere, Little Bealings, and Tuddenham St Martin and circling Brightwell Heath, the site of mounds that date from the Bronze Age. There are cemeteries of a similar date at Rendlesham and Ufford. A ship-burial at Snape is the only one in England that can be compared to the example at Sutton Hoo.

The territory between the Orwell and the watersheds of the Alde and Deben rivers may have been an early centre of royal power, originally centred upon Rendlesham or Sutton Hoo, and a primary component in the formation of the East Anglian kingdom: In the early 7th century, Gipeswic (modern Ipswich) began its growth as a centre for foreign trade, Botolph's monastery at Iken was founded by royal grant in 654, and Bede identified Rendlesham as the site of Æthelwold's royal dwelling.Historia Ecclesiastica, iii.22.Bruce-Mitford 1974, 73113; however Kingston near Woodbridge (nearly opposite Sutton Hoo) is "another possibility" (see Scarfe 1986, 4, 30).

David M. Wilson has remarked that the metal artworks found in the Sutton Hoo graves were "work of the highest quality, not only in English but in European terms".

Sutton Hoo is a cornerstone of the study of art in Britain in the 6th9th centuries. George Henderson has described the ship treasures as "the first proven hothouse for the incubation of the Insular style".Henderson and Henderson 2004, 1529, quote at p. 16. The gold and garnet fittings show the creative fusion of earlier techniques and motifs by a master goldsmith. Insular art drew upon Irish, Pictish, Anglo-Saxon, native British and Mediterranean artistic sources: the 7th-century Book of Durrow owes as much to Pictish sculpture, British millefiori and enamelwork and Anglo-Saxon cloisonné metalwork as it does to Irish art. The Sutton Hoo treasures represent a continuum from pre-Christian royal accumulation of precious objects from diverse cultural sources, through to the art of gospel books, shrines and liturgical or dynastic objects.

The ship-burial treasure was presented to the nation by the owner, Mrs Pretty, and was at the time the largest gift made to the British Museum by a living donor. The principal items are now permanently on display at the British Museum. A display of the original finds excavated in 1938 from Mounds 2, 3 and 4, and replicas of the most important items from Mound 1, can be seen at the Ipswich Museum.

In the 1990s, the Sutton Hoo site, including Sutton Hoo House, was given to the National Trust by the Trustees of the Annie Tranmer Trust. At Sutton Hoo's visitor centre and Exhibition Hall, the newly found hanging bowl and the Bromeswell Bucket, finds from the equestrian grave, and a recreation of the burial chamber and its contents can be seen.

The 2001 Visitor Centre was designed by van Heyningen and Haward Architects for the National Trust. Their work included the overall planning of the estate, the design of an exhibition hall and visitor facilities, car parking and the restoration of a fine Edwardian house to provide additional facilities.

London Borough of Tower Hamlets

The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a London Borough in East London which covers much of the traditional East End. The Borough was formed in 1965 from the merger of the former Metropolitan Boroughs of Stepney, Poplar and Bethnal Green. The new authority's unusual name comes from an alternative title for the Tower Division; the area of south-east Middlesex, focused on the area of the modern borough, which owed military service to the Tower of London. The borough lies to the east of the City of London and north of the River Thames. It includes much of the redeveloped Docklands region of London, including West India Docks and Canary Wharf. Many of the tallest buildings in London occupy the centre of the Isle of Dogs in the south of the borough. A part of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park is in Tower Hamlets. The borough has a population of 272,890, which includes one of the highest Muslim populations in the country and has an established British Bangladeshi and Pakistani business and residential community. Tower Hamlets has the highest proportion of Muslims in England outnumbering Christians, and has more than 40 mosques and Islamic centres. The East London Mosque, one of the first mosques in Britain allowed to broadcast the adhan and is one of the biggest Islamic centres in Europe. Brick Lane's restaurants, neighbouring street market and shops provide the largest range of Bengali cuisine, woodwork, carpets and clothes in Europe. The local authority is Tower Hamlets London Borough Council. As of 2017, the councillors are: 22 Labour, 9 Independent Group, 5 Conservative, 5 People's Alliance, 3 independent, 1 Liberal Democrat.

Pigs in blankets

Pigs in blankets are a variety of different sausage-based foods in the United States, United Kingdom, Denmark, Ireland, Germany, Belgium, Russia, Canada, and Japan. Many are large, but other recipes call for a dish that is small in size and can be eaten in one or two bites. For this reason, they are usually served as an appetizer or hors d'oeuvre or are accompanied by other dishes in the 'main course' section of a meal. In the West, especially in the United States and Canada, the bite-sized variety of pig in a blanket is a common hors d'oeuvre served at cocktail parties and is often accompanied by a mustard or aioli dipping sauce.

Pigs in a blanket are usually different from sausage rolls, which are a larger, more filling item served for breakfast and lunch in parts of Europe, Australia, and, more rarely, the United States and Canada.

In the United Kingdom, "pigs in blankets" refers to small sausages wrapped in bacon. They are a traditional accompaniment to roast turkey in a Christmas dinner.

In the United States, the term "pigs in a blanket" typically refers to hot dogs in croissant rolls, but may include Vienna sausages, cocktail or breakfast/link sausages wrapped in biscuit dough, pancake, or croissant dough, and baked. The dough is sometimes homemade, but canned dough is most common. They are somewhat similar to a sausage roll or a baked corn dog. The larger variety is served as a quick and easy main course or a light meal (particularly for children) while the smaller version is served as an appetizer. At breakfast or brunch, the term "pigs in a blanket" often refers to sausage links with pancake wrapped around it. In the state of Texas, they are also referred to as kolaches, despite the term being a slight misnomer.

The name can also refer to Czech-American dish, klobasnek.

The German Würstchen im Schlafrock uses sausages wrapped in puff pastry or, more rarely, pancakes. Cheese and bacon are sometimes present. - not to be confused with the English "Pig in blanket" - which it is not.

In Russia, this dish is named Сосиска в тесте (Sosiska v teste, "sausage in dough").

In Israel, Moshe Ba'Teiva (Moses in the basket) is a children's dish consisting of a hot dog rolled in a ketchup-covered sheet of puff pastry or phyllo dough and baked.

In Denmark, there is a dish similar to the British-style dish known as the Pølse i svøb, which means "sausage in blanket", usually sold at hot dog stands known as pølsevogn (sausage-wagons). The American-style pigs in a blanket are known as Pølsehorn, meaning "Sausage horns".

In Finland, pigs in blanket are known as nakkipiilo, which means "hidden sausage" if it is translated freely.

In Mexico, the sausage is wrapped in a tortilla and deep fried in vegetable oil. The name "salchitaco" comes from the fusion of the words salchicha (sausage) and taco (sausage taco).

In both Australia and New Zealand, pig in a blanket is a cocktail frankfurter wrapped in bacon and/or puff pastry.

In China, a Chinese sausage wrapped in pastry is called "Lap Cheong Bao" and is steamed rather than baked.

In Hong Kong, a hot dog wrapped in pastry is called "Cheung Jai Bau" or "Hot Dog Bun" and is baked.

In Estonia, they are referred to as "viineripirukas", which means sausage pastry.

In Serbia, the dish has a name "rol viršla", lit. (hot) dog roll. Rol viršla is a very popular type of fast food in Serbia.

Activities

Harrods

London is one of the world's most fashion-conscious cities: it has an abundance of clothing shops from the flagship stores of Oxford Street to the tiny boutiques of Brick Lane.

Though not particularly known for bargain shopping, nearly anything you could possibly want to buy is available in London. That being said, during major sales, such as the annual Boxing Day sale after Christmas, prices for certain items have been known to be slashed by up to 70%, meaning that it is possible to find bargains for genuine luxury-branded goods if you are there at the right time. In Central London, the main shopping district is the West End (Bond Street, Covent Garden, Oxford Street and Regent Street). On Thursdays many West End stores close later than normal (19:00-20:00).

  • Oxford Street. Main shopping street, home to flagship branches of all the major British high street retailers in one go including Selfridges, John Lewis (includes a food hall), Marks & Spencer and other department stores. It is best to shop here in the morning as the street becomes increasingly busy during the day. (Tube: Oxford Circus)

  • Tottenham Court Road. Contains some of the world's most luxurious designer interior stores such as Heals, whilst the southern end is famous for its large concentration of hi-fi, computer and electronics stores. (Tube: Tottenham Court Road, Goodge Street)

  • Covent Garden. Fashionable area home to quaint outlets and relatively expensive designer stores. Around Seven Dials, chains include Adidas Originals, All Saints, Carhartt, Fred Perry, G Star Raw and Stussy. For shoes head for Neal Street. Also the London Transport Museum whose gift shop has some of the best souvenirs in the city (old maps, vintage Tube posters, etc.) London's second Apple Store is located here as well. (Tube: Covent Garden)

  • Charing Cross Road (near Covent Garden). Traditionally a book lover's haven, it still has the giant general bookstore Foyles, and a few specialist and antiquarian shops survive south of Cambridge Circus and on the side streets to the east. (Tube: Tottenham Court Road, Leicester Square, or Charing Cross)

  • Soho. Offers alternative music and clothes. Now home to Chappell of Bond Street's historic music shop. (Tube: Oxford Circus)

  • Camden Town. Alternative clothing and other alternative shopping, popular with teenagers and young adults. Has the headquarters for Cyberdog - a large shop which sells clothing and accessories for the club and rave scene. Camden Lock Market is also worth a visit to see independent artists plying their wares. (Tube: Camden Town)

  • Beauchamp Place. Shop where royalty and celebrities shop! One of the world's most unique and famous streets. It is known as one of London’s most fashionable and distinctive streets, housing some of the best known names in London fashion, interspersed with trendy restaurants, jewellers and speciality shops including Fortuny. (Tube: Knightsbridge)

  • Westminster. Some of the world's most famous shirts are made on Jermyn Street. Savile Row is home to some of the world's best men's bespoke tailors including Henry Poole, Gieves & Hawkes, H. Huntsman & Sons, and Dege & Skinner. (Tube: Westminster)

  • Westfield London in Shepherd's Bush is one of the two largest shopping mall complexes in Greater London. It is served by the London Overground and the Underground. It is easiest to get here via public transport, but there is reasonable car parking space available. (Tube: Shepherd's Bush)

  • Westfield Stratford City in Stratford is a large shopping mall complex located on the edge of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. There is ample car parking and you can also park here to access the Park itself. This Westfield is easier to access by car due to its close proximity to the A12 road. (Tube/DLR: Stratford)

London has hosted the Summer Olympics three times: in 1908, 1948, and 2012. It was chosen in July 2005 to host the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics, making it the first city to host the modern Games three times. The city was also the host of the British Empire Games in 1934. In 2017 London will host the World Championships in Athletics.

London's most popular sport is football and it has twelve Football League clubs, including five in the Premier League: Arsenal, Chelsea, Crystal Palace, Tottenham Hotspur, and West Ham United. Other professional teams in London are Fulham, Queens Park Rangers, Brentford, Millwall, Charlton Athletic, AFC Wimbledon and Barnet. Arsenal, Chelsea and Tottenham are the only London clubs to have won the League. From 1924, the original Wembley Stadium was the home of the English national football team. It hosted the 1966 FIFA World Cup Final, with England defeating West Germany, and served as the venue for the FA Cup Final as well as rugby league's Challenge Cup final. The new Wembley Stadium serves exactly the same purposes and has a capacity of 90,000.

Two Aviva Premiership rugby union teams are based in London, Saracens and Harlequins. London Scottish, London Welsh and London Irish play in the RFU Championship club and other rugby union clubs in the city include Richmond F.C., Rosslyn Park F.C., Westcombe Park R.F.C. and Blackheath F.C.. Twickenham Stadium in south-west London is the national rugby union stadium, and has a capacity of 82,000 now that the new south stand has been completed. While rugby league is more popular in the north of England, there are two professional rugby league clubs in London – the second tier Championship One team, the London Broncos, who play at the Trailfinders Sports Ground in West Ealing, and the third tier League 1 team, the London Skolars from Wood Green, Haringey; in addition, Hemel Stags from Hemel Hempstead north of London also play in League 1.

One of London's best-known annual sports competitions is the Wimbledon Tennis Championships, held at the All England Club in the south-western suburb of Wimbledon. Played in late June to early July, it is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.

London has two Test cricket grounds, Lord's (home of Middlesex C.C.C.) in St John's Wood and the Oval (home of Surrey C.C.C.) in Kennington. Lord's has hosted four finals of the Cricket World Cup. Other key events are the annual mass-participation London Marathon, in which some 35,000 runners attempt a 26.2mi course around the city, and the University Boat Race on the River Thames from Putney to Mortlake.

Due to the expense of other forms of transport and the compactness of central London, cycling is a tempting option. Free cycle maps can usually be obtained from your local Tube station or bike shop.

Most major roads in London will have a bus lane which is restricted to buses, taxis and bicycles.

Many improvements have been made for cyclists in the city over the last few years, Noticeably, there are many new signposted cycle routes and new cycle lanes as well as a review of junctions considered dangerous for cycling. Despite recent improvements, however, London remains a relatively hostile environment for cyclists. The kind of contiguous cycle lane network found in many other European cities does not exist. The safest option is to stick to minor residential roads where traffic can be surprisingly calm outside rush hours.

Critical Mass London is a cycling advocacy group which meets for regular rides through central London at 18:00 on the last Friday of each month. Rides start from the southern end of Waterloo Bridge. The London Cycling Campaign is an advocacy group for London cyclists. With active local groups in most of the city's boroughs, it is recognised by local and regional government as the leading voice for cycling in the capital.

Normally a cyclist should keep to the left of the lane when cycling on a road with traffic, to allow faster-moving traffic to overtake. However, it is legal for a cycle to dominate a lane by maintaining a central road position like any other vehicle. This will make you unpopular with any traffic behind you but it is recommended in London on approach to right-hand turns at junctions. Making a right-hand turn from the normal left-position means crossing the lane of traffic, which may often ignore you and any turn signals you might have been using, leading to potential accidents.

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